Especially biomass of the masson pine was small. From these results, it was found that net productivity of the forest, especially masson pine forest, was very low compared other normal forests.
Acid Rain Effects on Plants & Animals | Sciencing
Sulfur and fluorine contents in leaves of the masson pine trees at the urban forest in Zhenwu Mountain were 2. Therefore, at the urban forest, fluorine may have some influences on forest decline, in addition to SO2. According to the laboratory experiments, significant effects were observed by exposure of 50 ppb SO2 and soil acidification on the dry weight growth of the seedling of masson pine tree Fig.
Studies on soil chemistry were carried out during Soil solution was extracted by an apparatus equipped with a porous ceramic cup applying a suction of 80 kPa. The pH of soil ranged from 4.
However, pH of soil solution under the masson pine trees was significantly lower than that under the camphor trees Table 5. Monthly variations of sulfate and nitrate concentrations in soil solution are shown in Fig. Sulfate concentration under the masson pine tree was three times higher than that under the camphor trees. Nitrate concentration under the masson pine trees was over ten times higher than that under the camphor trees.
From these results, it is considered that broad-leaved forest may reduce acidification of yellow soil to some extent. Coal samples used in Chongqing City were obtained 4 coal-mines.
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Annual emission of SO2 amouns to 0. Therefore, countermeasure of SO2 emission is very important problem in Chongqing City. Contribution of different coal combustion facilities to the total SO2 emission in Chongqing City was estimated as shown in Fig. Predesulfurization of high sulfur coals by rapid-pyrolysis combined with density separation was examined. This shows a correlation between extent of organic sulfur removal and average specific gravity.
Acid Rain and Our Ecosystem
In general, lower the specific garvity, higher the extent of organic sulfur removal. In case of the Fu Rong coal, most of organic sulfur was removed rapidly. The effect of briquet combustion, that is addition of calcium carbonate to coal, on reduction of SO2 emission was examined. The cost of coal briquet, including facility cost, utility cost and desulfurization agent cost, was estimated and compared with the cost of the fluidized bed or semi-dry processes.
The desulfurization cost using coal briquetting reduced to less than half compared with that of semi-dry or fluidized bed desulfurization process Fig. The most important counterplans for the present are reduction of SO2 emission from stationary sources. In case of the power station and large-scale boiler, the following counterplans are useful, that is washing of coal at mine sites, desulfurization in fluid-bed combustion and semi-dry flue-gas desulfurization.
In case of the middle and small scale boiler, and private use for cooking, the followings are useful, that is briquetting with lime stone, and use of coal char prepared by washing and rapid-pyrolysis at mine sites. In order to prevent decline of forests, reduction of SO2 and fluorine emission is important, moreover, neutralization of soil by sprinkle of lime under the forest floor is considered to be also useful.
In addition, change of coniferous trees into broad-leaved trees, which is comparatively song to acidification of soil, may be also an effectual method. At the Chongqing power station, countermeasures for SO2 and dust are not enough. However, the new power station equipped with desulfurization equipment and electric dust collector was constructed at the suburb of Chongqing City in At Nanshan Mountain area, mixed planting of coniferous and broad-leaved trees has been tried and recovery of fertility of soil is expected.
Toxic effects of acid rain on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems.
Finally, the following future research problems are considered, in order to recover the clean air and comfortable environment :. In, Proc. Ogura, N. Zhao, D. Water, Air and Soil Pollution 77, Acid Rain A 10 1 sampler was set on the rooftop of the Forest Diseases and Pest Prevention Station, and a polyethylene funnel of am diameter was installed. Influences on Pond Ecosystems Samples of pond waters were collected during at Nanshan Mountain and Jinyun Mountain areas, and water qualities and biological parameters were determined.
Influences on Forest Ecosystems Investigations on forest ecosystems were carried out during in coniferous masson pine and broad-leaved camphor tree forests. Acid rain damages the leaves of trees and plants, thus limiting their growth and exposing them to the metals in the air from the toxic rain. Depending on the severity of the damage, the vegetation can be stunted in its growth or the foliage can be stripped away. The damage can also destroy a plant's ability to handle cold or disease, which can also negatively impact the food web.
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When acid rain absorbs into the ground, the soil becomes more acidic, which dissolves helpful minerals in the soil. Acid rain also releases toxic substances, such as aluminum, into the soil and has poisonous effects. The effect of acid rain on plants and animals can be mitigated under certain conditions, such as having a thick layer of soil and having certain types of bedrock under the soil to absorb the rain.
When fish are exposed to acid rain, the disturbed levels of minerals in fish will affect their reproductive system and the females will not release eggs. When certain fish are in water with a very acidic pH level, the mucus on their gills will become very sticky and will eventually stick together, causing them to be unable to receive oxygen from the water.
A study was done in the Netherlands about the exact effects of acid rain on a given habitat. They noticed that acid rain leached calcium from the soil, which was the primary source of calcium for snails in that environment.
Sources and Forms of Acid Rain
The snails soon died off, which was the primary source of calcium for birds in that habitat. The birds had to look to other sources for their calcium, such as insects.
The birds were not able to receive a significant amount of calcium and began to lay defective eggs. She has also studied Arabic at the University of Jordan.
Related Effects of Acid Precipitation on Terrestrial Ecosystems
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